The protocol describes an improved (refined) method for tail vein injection in black mice using a combination of a special LED illumination, a Broome style restrainer as well as effortless insulin syringes.
Non-invasive biomarkers of disease progression in mice with cancer are lacking, making it challenging to implement appropriate humane end points. The authors conclude that temperature, food and water consumption were useful biomarkers of disease progression in mice with lymphomas and could potentially be used more widely to monitor mice with other forms of cancer.
The authors propose to modify current research policies. In particular they propose to discourage the common use of exploratory studies to support confirmatory inferences, but to 1) promote a greater volume of confirmatory investigations, and 2) to customize design and reporting guidelines for each mode.
The article focuses on the possibilities of reducing the number of animals by skipping small animal models, by evidence based selection of animal models and by choosing characteristics that increase their predictive value.